A Post Transaction Valuation Check (PTVC) can be requested from HMRC for an individual to work out a Capital Gains Tax liability or for companies to calculate Corporation Tax liability on chargeable gains. The request for a PTVC should be made using the CG34 form. HMRC’s guidance says the form must be completed and sent to the address on the form at least 3 months before the relevant tax return filing date.
The PTVC is a service offered by HMRC to check valuations after a disposal has been made, including a deemed disposal following a claim that an asset has become of negligible value, but before the completion of a Self-Assessment return. This service is available to all taxpayers, individuals, trustees and companies.
If HMRC agrees with the valuations set out, they will not question the use of those valuations in the return, unless there are any important facts affecting the valuations that have not been disclosed. Agreement to the valuations does not always mean that HMRC agree the gain or loss. When the return is filed HMRC will consider the other figures used.
If agreement cannot be reached, HMRC will suggest alternatives such as using a specialist valuer. The guidance has been updated to include details on the importance of submitting an estimated return if you are waiting on an CG34 valuation to meet the 30-day filing requirement.
Source:HM Revenue & Customs| 23-01-2023
HMRC’s internal manuals states that the word `trust’ describes a relationship between certain persons
- which is recognised by the law;
- concerned with particular property; and
- enforceable by reference to rules of trust law.
Effectively, a trust is an obligation that binds a trustee, an individual or a company, to deal with assets – such as land, money and shares – which form part of the trust. The person who places assets into a trust is known as a settlor and the trust is for the benefit of one or more 'beneficiaries'.
The trustees make decisions about how the assets in the trust are to be managed, transferred or held back for the future use of the beneficiaries. They are also responsible for reporting and paying tax on behalf of the trust. A trust needs to be registered with HMRC if it pays or owes tax. CGT may be payable when assets are placed into or taken out of a trust.
If assets are placed into a trust, then tax is paid by either the person selling the asset to the trust or the person transferring the asset (the 'settlor'). If assets are taken out of a trust, the trustees usually have to pay the tax if they sell or transfer assets on behalf of the beneficiary. However, the rules are complex and there are different types of trusts that need to be considered. For example, bare trusts or non-UK resident trusts.
Source:HM Revenue & Customs| 09-01-2023
In the Autumn Statement, the Chancellor announced that the annual exempt amount applicable to Capital Gains Tax (CGT) is to be more than halved next year. This rate had previously been fixed at £12,300 from April 2021 to April 2026 for individuals, personal representatives, and certain trusts for disabled people.
The exempt amount will now be reduced to £6,000 from April 2023 before being further halved to £3,000 from April 2024.
Any taxpayers that are thinking about the disposal of assets should consider the benefits of crystalising gains before 6 April 2023 to fully utilise the £12,300 allowance for 2022-23.
Married couples and civil partners both qualify for the £12,300 allowance in which case organising joint ownership of these assets before disposal may be beneficial if each individual partner is not fully utilising their 2022-23 annual allowance.
Transfers between spouses and civil partners are exempt from CGT. Making use of the full allowance can, in some circumstances, effectively double the CGT exemption before the end of the current tax year to £24,600.
CGT is normally charged at a simple flat rate of 20% and this applies to most chargeable gains made by individuals. If taxpayers only pay basic rate tax and make a small capital gain, they may only be subject to a reduced rate of 10%. Once the total of taxable income and gains exceed the higher rate threshold, the excess will be subject to 20% CGT.
A higher rate of CGT applies to gains on the disposal of residential property (apart from a principal private residence). The rates are 18% for basic rate taxpayers and 28% for higher rate taxpayers.
Source:HM Treasury| 21-11-2022
In most cases, there is no capital gains tax (CGT) to be paid on the transfer of assets to a spouse or civil partner. There is, however, still a disposal that has taken place for CGT purposes effectively at no gain or loss on the date of the transfer. When the asset ultimately comes to be sold, the gain or loss will be calculated from when the original spouse or civil partner first owned the asset..
There are a few exceptions that couples should be aware of where the relief does not apply. This mainly relates to the use of goods which are sold on by the transferee’s business and for couples that were separated and not living together for the entire tax year when the assets were transferred. Spouses or civil partners that lived together at any point in the tax year when the assets were transferred can still benefit from these rules. If a transfer did not qualify then the asset must be retrospectively valued at the date of the transfer and the transferor is liable for any gain or loss.
There are similar rules for assets that are gifted to charities. However, CGT may be due where an asset is sold to a charity for more than was paid for it and less than the market value. The gain in this case would be calculated based on what the charity paid rather than the market value of the asset.
Source:HM Revenue & Customs| 31-10-2022
In general, there is no Capital Gains Tax (CGT) on a property which has been used as a main family residence. This relief from CGT is commonly known as private residence relief.
However, there are grey areas which might result in CGT being due on the sale of a private residence. One of these areas to consider is when disposing of garden or grounds belonging to the property.
The entitlement to private residence relief is usually available if the garden or grounds, including the site of the house is no greater than 5,000 square metres (a little over an acre). Larger gardens and grounds may qualify but only if they are appropriate to the size and character of the property and are required for the reasonable enjoyment of it.
Taxpayers are still entitled to relief if they dispose of land that they occupy as their garden or grounds, up to the permitted area, at the time of disposal. The garden or grounds includes the buildings standing on that land. HMRC’s guidance is clear that a building that is not part of a dwelling house can still qualify for relief if it’s within the permitted area of garden or grounds.
No relief is allowed for land let or used for a business or for land that has been fenced or divided off from your garden for development.
Source:HM Revenue & Customs| 24-10-2022
Usually, if you sell an asset for less than you paid for it you would make a capital loss. As a general rule if the asset would have been liable to CGT had a gain taken place then the loss should be an allowable deduction.
If an individual realises an allowable loss in the part of the tax year before his or her death, those losses must be set first against any chargeable gains accruing in that period. This applies even if it reduces the net chargeable gains below the annual exempt amount for that year.
If there is an excess of allowable losses after this set off, those losses may be carried back and set off against gains accruing in the three tax years before the tax year of death.
Any losses that are not set against gains accruing before death are lost. They cannot be used by the personal representatives or the legatees.
The legislation does not provide any specific procedures or time limits for dealing with claims to carry back losses of the year of death. The normal procedures and time limits relating to claims will therefore apply.
Source:HM Revenue & Customs| 17-10-2022
In general, there is no CGT payable on a property disposal which has been used as the main family residence. An investment property which has never been used as a private residence will not qualify. This relief from CGT is commonly known as private residence relief.
Taxpayers are usually entitled to full relief from CGT where all the following conditions are met:
- The family home has been the taxpayers only or main residence throughout the period of ownership.
- The taxpayer has not let part of the house out – this does not include having a lodger.
- No part of the family home has been used exclusively for business purposes (using a room as a temporary or occasional office does not count as exclusive business use).
- The garden or grounds including the buildings on them are not greater than 5,000 square metres (just over an acre) in total.
- The property was not purchased just to make a gain.
If a property has been occupied at any time as an individual’s private residence, the last 9 months of ownership are disregarded for CGT purposes – even if the individual was not living in the property when it was sold. The time period can be extended to 36 months under certain limited circumstances. There are also special rules for homeowners that work or live away from home.
Married couples and civil partners can only count one property as their main home at any one time.
Source:HM Revenue & Customs| 24-09-2022